The objective of this research paper is to find out if trust has a moderator effect on the relation between the leadership style as perceived by employees and the organizational citizenship behavior and the intent to quit. The questionnaire designed to test this relation has been responded by 200 employees. SPSS 13,0 packaged software has been used to test data and factor analysis, regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis have been used to test relations. It has been concluded that while trust does not have a moderator effect on the relationship between responded by 200 employees. SPSS 13,0 packaged software has been used to test data and factor analysis, regression analysis and hierarchical regression analysis have been used to test relations. It has been concluded that while trust does not have a moderator effect on the relationship between leadership and intent to quit, some lower dimensions of trust have a moderator effect on the relationship between transformational leadership, which is a lower dimension of leadership, and the lower dimensions of organizational citizenship.
Leadership, Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Intent to Quit, Trust
Jel Classification: L20, M10, M19
Bu araştırmanın amacı çalışanların algıladıkları liderlik stili ile örgütsel vatandaşlık davranışı ve işten ayrılma niyeti arasındaki ilişkide güvenin bu ilişkiyi farklılaştırıcı (moderatör) bir etkisi olup olmadığını araştırmaktır. Bu ilişkiyi test etmek üzere hazırlanan anket formu 200 çalışan üzerinde yapılmıştır. Verilerin analizinde SPSS 13,0 paket programı kullanılmış ve ilişkileri test etmek üzere, faktör analizi, regresyon ve hiyerarşik regresyon analizlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda liderlik ve işten ayrılma niyeti arasındaki ilişkide güvenin moderatör etkisi saptanmazken, liderliğin alt boyutu olan dönüşümcü liderlik ile örgütsel vatandaşlığın alt boyutları arasındaki ilişkide güvenin bazı alt boyutlarının bu ilişkiyi farklılaştırıcı (moderatör) etkiye sahip olduğu görülmüştür.
Liderlik, Örgütsel Vatandaşlık Davranışı, İşten Ayrılma Niyeti, Güven
Jel Sınıflandırması: L20, M10, M19
In today’s businesses, there is an increase in the need for leader administrators who act beyond their formative job descriptions and provide a relatively significant level of competitive advantage for their organizations so that the businesses can survive. The leaders who motivate employees to reach common goals and give prominence to and always bear in mind the interests of subordinates gain credibility.
Leadership is one of the significant concepts affecting employees’ attitudes and behaviors. The attitudes and behaviors of leader towards employees might affect the feelings and thoughts of employees about both the organization and their work. Among these attitudes and behaviors affected by leadership, organizational citizenship behavior and intent to quit are also included.
Leadership and trust relation is one of the overemphasized subjects in literature on which several experimental researches have been carried out about it. In such researches, particularly trust has been dealt with as a rather significant variable for leader effectiveness . However, in the literature, no study has been found to have examined the moderator effect of trust on the relationship between leadership and organizational citizenship behavior and intent to quit. In this framework, the aim of this study is to investigate the role of trust on the effect of leadership style perceived by employees on the organizational citizenship behavior and intent to quit. In this context, our intention is to contribute to the related literature.
In this study, first of all, some brief information will be provided about leadership, organizational citizenship behavior, intent to quit and trust as the constituents of the research. Then, the relations between the variables will be emphasized and the research hypothesis will be suggested under the light of the related literature. In the following sections, the methodology of the research, results of analysis and the research model will be explained. The result of the research will be provided in the conclusion.
II. Literature Review and Hypothese
By its simplest definition, leadership is the skill of affecting a group of people for the achievement of a goal. The source of this effect can be both formal and informal since the top management assigns persons some managerial power. Organizations need powerful leaders and strong management to ensure organizational effectiveness .
The earliest leadership researches date back to 1930s. In 1980s, two basic approaches were suggested about leadership: transformational leadership and transactional leadership. James McGregor was the first to use this distinction. Bass et al. developed the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) based on this approach . In this research, this scale developed by Bass et al. has been applied.
Transformational and transactional leadership, which are suggested as two sub-dimensions of leadership, can be explained as follows:
Transformational Leadership: Transformational leadership includes creating vision and inspiring. The leader motivates employees, shapes organizational culture and creates the organizational climate required for organizational change. 
Transactional Leadership: Transactional leadership is focused on the completion of due tasks for the realization of leadership goals, clear description of roles and duties, foundation of organizational structure, awarding performance and meeting the social needs of employees. Such leaders work so hard to ensure effectiveness and productivity .
II.2. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors
Organizational citizenship behaviors occur when employees go beyond their work descriptions in order to enhance organizational effectiveness and voluntarily do more than what is required from them. Such behaviors constitute the most fundamental examples of the extra role behavior exhibited by the employees who are being supported by their transformational leaders .
Organizational citizenship behavior can be investigated under five sub-dimensions: Courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, conscientiousness and altruism. These dimensions can be defined as follows :
Courtesy: The behaviors that help to protect employees in the organization from work-related problems which might affect them.
Civic Virtue: Behaviors of feeling responsible about the organizational problems, voluntarily contributing to the organization and integrating oneself with the organization.
Sportsmanship: Being willing to work without complaining about the problems encountered in the organization and with a positive attitude.
Conscientiousness: Behaviors which include going beyond the minimum role requirements of the job, being firmly committed to rules and regulations, paying special attention to attend work on a regular basis, etc.
Altruism: Voluntarily providing assistance to the others for the fulfillment of organizational tasks or solving problems.
II.3. Intent to Quit
Intent to quit can be defined as employees’ thinking about leaving work due to their dissatisfaction with the current working conditions. Since it causes serious consequences for the organization when employees quit, the intent to quit is a research subject for many scientific disciplines. Since intent to quit is a concept which also has an effect on organizational effectiveness, the researchers are intended to identify the elements causing intent to quit. Thus, the practitioners are able to eliminate the reasons causing employees to quit work .
Trust is among the most significant factors for the establishment of constructive human relationships within the organization and achievement of organizational success. The research also demonstrates that trust has an effect on organizational success by decreasing the conflicts and creating a harmonious environment in the organization. Trust within the organization can be investigated in three dimensions including trust in the institution, trust in manager, and trust in co-workers . In this research, we focused on the trust in manager in relation with the research topic.
The concept of trust is closely related with leadership. When the trust is damaged, it might cause highly serious consequences in the case of employees. Employees’ trust in their leaders, their belief that their leaders will defend their rights and will not abuse their good will is of utmost importance for the employees to exhibit a positive performance .
The significance of trust in terms of leadership has been a research topic for many scientific disciplines. It is possible to find several studies which have examined the relation of trust in leadership to various variables such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intent to quit. 
II.5. Development of Hypotheses
It is possible to find several researches in the related literature about the relationship between leadership style and employee attitudes and behaviors . In this context, organizational citizenship behavior and intent to quit also appear as the variables related to leadership style , , , . However, in literature, trust is also underlined as one of the most important factors determining the effectiveness of a leader. Particularly the concepts of trust and fidelity are frequently emphasized in transformational leadership .
Intent to quit suggests employee’s thought about quitting work. One’s thinking about his work is significantly affected by his leader. The literature involves various researches confirming this relationship . When employee has a positive perception of the leadership style his intent to quit decreases. In other words, these two variables are reversely related. In literature, trust has been dealt with as a quite significant variable in terms of the effectiveness of the leader . In this context, when employee trusts in his leader, the negative effect of leadership style on intent to quit is expected to increase. Therefore, if the employee has a positive perception of his leader in the organization and trusts in his leader, his intent to quit can decrease.
As discussed before, organizational citizenship behavior is defined as the situation in which employees go beyond their work descriptions in order to enhance organizational effectiveness and voluntarily do more than what is required from them. The research shows that the leadership style is an important variable that has an effect on employees’ organizational citizenship behavior , , , . As suggested before, since the trust factor is of importance for the effectiveness of the leader, the trust is expected to have an increasing effect on this relationship. The more the employees trust in their leaders, the more the organizational citizenship behavior can increase. The related literature provides further information about the recent studies regarding leadership, OCB, intent to quit, trust and various moderators. , , , , , , , , , , . (See, Table 1)
The following hypotheses have been developed in line with the literature screening:
H1: Trust has a moderator effect on the relationship between leadership style and organizational citizenship behavior.
H2: Trust has a moderator effect on the relationship between leadership style and intent to quit.
III.1. Research Goal
The aim of this research is to find out if trust has a moderator effect on the relationship between the leadership style and organizational citizenship behavior as perceived by employees and intent to quit. A questionnaire designed to test this relationship has been applied on the selected sample group.
III.2. Sample and Data Collection
The questionnaire has been responded by 200 employees who are registered to one of the leading human resources firms in Turkey and who are currently working in a business but seeking for another job. For data analysis, SPSS 13,0 packaged program has been used.
The questionnaire technique has been used to collect data for the research. In this research, “Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire” (MLQ) by Bass and Avolio (1990)  has been used to measure leadership style; “Organizational Citizenship Behavior Scale” developed by Podsakoff et al. (2000)  has been used to measure organizational citizenship behavior; “Intent to Quit Scale” developed by Konovsky and Cropanzano (1991)  and also used by Cole and Brunch (2006)  has been used to measure intent to quit; and “Trust in Manager” scale designed by İslamoğlu et al. (2007)  has been used to measure trust in manager.
IV. Analysis and Results
First of all, the factor and reliability analysis of data collection tools have been made in the research. The results of analysis are presented on Table 2, Table 3, Table 4, Table 5, and Table 6 below. As a result of the analysis about the leadership style perceived by employees, it has been found out that leadership consists of 2 dimensions. As in the original scale, these dimensions have been called transformational and transactional leadership. As a result of the organizational citizenship behaviors analysis, it has been found out that this variable consists of 5 dimensions, which have been named as courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, and altruism as in the original scale. As a result of the analysis, it has been found out that intent to quit consists of one dimension and trust in manager consists of 3 dimensions, including relationalism, fairness, and expertise
In this research, regression analysis, multiple regression analysis and hierarchic regression analysis were applied to test hypotheses. As a result of the regression analysis, it has been found out that the transformational leadership has a significant negative effect on intent to quit. (p= ,000, β = ,-489) According to the results, intent to quit decreases as the transformational leadership increases. As a result of the regression analysis conducted to identify the effect of transactional leadership on intent to quit, no significant relationship has been found out between these two variables. As a result of the regression analysis made to identify the effect of transformational leadership on the sub-dimensions of organizational citizenship including courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, and altruism, it has been found that the transformational leadership has a significant effect on courtesy (p=,000, β = ,420), civic virtue (p=,000, β = ,446), sportsmanship ( p=,000, β = ,382), conscientiousness ( p=,000, β = ,277) and altruism (p=,000, β = ,303).
As a result of the regression analysis made to identify the effect of transactional leadership on courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, conscientiousness, and altruism, no significant effect has been found. Since it has been concluded as a result of the analysis that only transformational leadership, a sub-dimension of leadership, has an effect on intent to quit and on courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, conscientiousness and altruism – sub-dimensions of organizational citizenship, a hierarchic regression analysis has been conducted
to test the moderator effect of the trust in manager in such relationships. The results of this analysis are shown on Table 7.
Table 7 Results of the Hierarchical Regression Analysis Made to Identify the Moderator Effect of Trust on the Relationship between Leadership and Intent to Quit and Organizational Citizenship Behavior
As seen on Table 7, as a result of the analysis, none of the dimensions of trust including relationalism, fairness and expertise have been seen to have a moderator effect on transformational leadership’s effect on intent to quit. By contrast, the sub-dimensions of trust including relationalism, fairness and expertise have been found to have a moderator effect on transformational leadership’s effect on the sub-dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior including courtesy, civic virtue and sportsmanship. Accordingly, the effect of transformational leadership on courtesy, civic virtue and sportsmanship increases by relationalism, fairness and expertise. In the effect of transformational leadership on conscientiousness, on the other hand, relationalism and fairness have a moderator effect, but expertise does not have such an effect. Accordingly, the effect of transformational leadership on conscientiousness increases by relationalism and fairness. Finally, while relationalism and fairness have a moderator effect on transformational leadership’s effect on altruism, expertise does not have a moderator effect. Accordingly, the effect of transformational leadership on altruism increases by relationalism and fairness.
This research has been carried out to test the moderator effect of trust in the relationship between leadership and intent to quit and organizational citizenship behavior. As a result of the analysis, it has been found that transformational leadership, a sub-dimension of leadership, affects intent to quit. As a result of the analysis conducted to identify the moderator role of trust in this relationship, no moderator effect has been found; therefore, H1 hypothesis has been denied.
The analysis demonstrated that transformational leadership- a sub-dimension of leadership- affects the sub-dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior including courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, conscientiousness and altruism. As a result of the analysis conducted to identify the moderator role of trust in this relationship, relationalism, fairness and expertise have been found to have a moderator effect on transformational leadership’s effect on courtesy, civic virtue and sportsmanship. However, only relationalism and fairness have been found to have a moderator effect on transformational leadership’s effect on conscientiousness and altruism. Consequently, H2 hypothesis has been partially supported.
One of the most significant findings of the research is that no relationship has been found to exist between transactional leadership and intent to quit and the sub-dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior. The literature involves so many researches indicating that in general, transformational leadership has positive effects on employees. The results of this study support such findings as well. While transformational leadership has positive effects on employees, transactional leadership does not have either positive or negative effects on employees.
In the related literature, trust is regarded as a variable which increases the effectiveness of leadership in employees’ attitudes and behaviors towards the leader. However, that trust has not been identified to have a moderator effect on the relationship between leadership and intent to quit in this research does not support it. On the other hand, that many sub-dimensions of trust have been found to have a moderator effect on the relationship between transformational leadership and the sub-dimensions of organizational citizenship behavior provides support to the findings of the related research in literature.
It must be remembered that the research has been carried out on a limited number of sample groups. In order to generalize the results of the research, it must be carried out in different countries and on different employees.
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